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The Globally Harmonized System (GHS) is a set of standards that has been adopted by companies, governments, universities and other institutions around the world. The system is focused on creating one set of standards for hazard communication which will also ensure that those who use this system agree on things like the criteria for the classification of different chemical hazards.
While the system was created largely to help get everyone on the same page when it comes to hazard communications so that it was easier and less confusing, it does require that those who adopt the system take the time to really understand it. This guide will help you to learn what GHS is, how it can help your facility, how it should be implemented and much more.
This guide is not meant to replace any official training courses or compliance manuals. Instead it will help give you more of a high-level overview of what GHS is, GHS compliance requirements, how GHS can help your facility and more.
To start with, lets answer some simple questions:
GHS stands for "Globally Harmonized System" (of classification and labeling of chemicals).
The reason GHS was created and why it is used in so many places today is to help improve workplace safety. By implementing a global set of standards it is much easier to help ensure people from all over the world understand what a particular label means, for example. This is important since chemicals are often made in one country and then shipped to another for use.
Having one set of standards helps to avoid miscommunications, which can result in serious accidents. In addition, when you have one global set of standards you don't need to worry about relabeling items when they are shipped internationally. This can help keep costs lower and avoid mislabeling or other issues that could result in problems.
Another nice thing about GHS is that it makes it much easier to keep everyone up to date with best practices. If it is found that a change in the location of labels, for example, will improve safety, then the GHS standards can be updated in one place and then rolled out globally. This is much more efficient than trying to get safety standards in each individual location updated one at a time.
To dig a little deeper into what this set of standards really is it is good to look at a brief history of GHS. For most companies, GHS really became important back on March 26, 2012 when OSHA published their final rule that revised the old Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) to be in line with the GHS. This brought the GHS, which was already fairly popular outside of the United States, into this country.
The update impacted millions of workers throughout a wide range of different workplaces. The update had a direct impact on things like the classification of hazards, the labeling requirements, the use of safety data sheets, training for employees, information gathering and classification.
GHS was originally created by the United Nations in 1992. Its intent was to help bring greater agreement for chemical regulations and standards for people in different nations. This is and was important because of the fact that companies from around the world work together to make products, so it was critical to have one main standard.
One thing to keep in mind when looking at the GHS is that in addition to knowing about it today, you also need to keep up with any GHS changes that take place in the future. Ongoing learning and implementation of these changes will help your facility to avoid compliance issues and operate as safely as possible.
GHS is simple an abbreviation for globally harmonized system of classification and labeling chemicals, as stated above. When used in common conversation it can refer to specific types of labels that meet the GHS standards. It can also be used to describe the overall strategy a facility may take to implement or improve their GHS strategies.
The specific way this abbreviation is used does vary from situation to situation, but it is almost always talking about how proper labeling and communication related to hazardous chemicals should be done.
The first thing to note when it comes to GHS compliance is that it is not an international law. Many people hear that it was developed by the United Nations and think that there may be some sort of UN enforcement, but that is not the case. The UN largely created the standards and made them available to people and governments around the world. They do not, however, have any requirements or enforcement power related to whether or not any country or company follows their standards.
That being said, however, there are many GHS compliance requirements in place in the United States. OSHA, for example, not only encourages the use of GHS but actually requires it in many situations. Depending on the specific type of facility you are running, you may be required to follow GHS standards related to labeling, data gathering or other things.
GHS compliance was rolled out slowly to allow companies to make the necessary adjustments overtime so that it did not cause significant cost issues or disruptions to work. Today, however, GHS compliance is the standards that all facilities must be in line with to avoid potential fines or other penalties from OSHA or other regulatory agencies.
Just to clarify, OSHA and GHS do not technically have anything official to do with each other. GHS was created and is maintained by an agency within the United Nations. OSHA takes the GHS standards and determines how they will be implemented in the United States. In virtually every case OSHA accepts the standards in GHS for the US.
Of course, OSHA can submit recommendations for GHS but they do not control it. Likewise, the UN cannot and does not require that OSHA adopt GHS or any aspect of GHS. OSHA, however, recognizes the benefits of the globally harmonized communications standard and works hard to implement in throughout the country.
OSHA does want you to properly classify hazards and in many situations they make it a requirement. If you don't classify the dangers properly you can be fined or even have more severe penalties implemented against you. Proper OSHA classification is essential for remaining in compliance and also for keeping people in your facility safe.
Now that we've covered the basic background of what GHS is and how it came to be, it is time to look at more practical aspects of the system. The standards associated with GHS labeling are used in industries around the world and are some of the most recognizable labels and signs people see today. Learning about the GHS labels and how you can efficiently use them in your facility will not only make staying in compliance with GHS easier, but also help keep your facility and employees much safer.
The following sections will touch on some of the requirements of GHS labeling and how you can implement them in your facility.
There are many GHS labeling requirements that facilities need to be aware of. The specific requirements vary from industry to industry and chemical to chemical so make sure you are able to reference this type of information directly.
The following are some specific requirements for chemical manufacturers as well as chemical importers. These requirements need to be met when labeling chemical containers:
To get an easy understanding of these labels it is best to have a look at them. To see GHS label examples and a breakdown of their different components, take a look at the following video. It is quick and shows exactly what a GHS label should look like and what the different sections are used for:
The signal words can help people to immediately gauge the level of risk associated with a specific chemical or substance in a labeled container. There are two approved GHS signal words that are used today:
One important point to keep in mind regarding GHS signal words is that only one of them should be used per label. If there is no serious risk to a substance, the GHS signal word is not needed.
One essential component of GHS labels is the GHS hazard pictograms.
There are nine pictograms that are officially approved by GHS. OSHA requires that facilities use eight of these whenever they are applicable. The environmental pictogram is not required by OSHA because they do not have jurisdiction over this type of thing. That being said, most responsible companies today will use all nine of these pictograms in their GHS labeling strategies.
You can get an in depth explanation of all of these pictograms in the following brief video:
While every part of a GHS label is important, the pictogram and hazard class is typically going to be the easiest to see and the first thing that people view. With this in mind, it is also going to be one of the most important parts of the label itself. This is why it is so important to make sure you have high quality GHS labels in your facility. Whether your order them from a third party or use a high quality industrial label printer, you will enjoy the benefits of staying in compliance and improving safety in your facility.
On the topic of using high quality labels, you will want to make sure you are creating your GHS pictures from a good source. The pictograms were designed to be easy to see and understand with bold borders and distinct imagery. Using only the approved GHS pictures will help your facility to avoid any confusion or other issues.
As mentioned above, a GHS hazard statement is a part of the GHS labeling requirements. A hazard statement should include a designated code and a specific statement that corresponds to the hazards that are associated with the chemical or substance that is being labeled. Proper use of GHS hazard statements is not only important for remaining in compliance with OSHA requirements, but also for keeping everyone safe.
The following are the categories of codes that can be used in a hazard statement. Each category will have multiple specific codes within it. You can get a full list of the codes HERE. In this list there will be several examples of what types of codes are in each category to give a general idea:
The following video goes into more detail about GHS hazard statements and the codes associated with them.
You can look at some examples of different GHS categories by looking at some common pictograms that are used in each of the different categories. If you're looking for a very simple chart that shows the different pictograms that may be needed depending on what the hazard is, you can find a nice one HERE.
The precautionary statement is an important part of most GHS labels. They will provide readers with information regarding what steps need to be taken in the event there is exposure, or what steps can be taken to minimize exposure to the hazardous substance. The pictograms discussed above are typically going to be a component of the overall precautionary statement.
Most people will recognize these types of precautionary statements from normal warning labels on household items. For example, one precautionary statement could be, "Keep out of reach of children. " Of course, this is not one that is likely to show up in most workplaces.
Just like with the hazard statements, precautionary statements have codes associated with them as well. Here are a few examples of GHS precautionary statements commonly seen.
Understanding the requirements of GHS labels is very important. Just as important, however, is making sure you have access to the labels you need when you need them. This can prove difficult for some companies because they attempt to order pre-made GHS labels from a third party print shop or other provider. In addition to being more expensive in the long run, it is also not very efficient.
The best way to make sure you have the labels you need when you need them is to use GHS label printers. A GHS label printer allows you to create the exact label you need right when you need it. There are many different options available when it comes to choosing the right industrial label printer for your facility. Looking at your specific needs and then determining which printer is right for you doesn't take too much time, but is well worth the effort.
The following are a couple examples of high quality LabelTac printers that can quickly create GHS labels for your facility:
There are, of course, other options for GHS label printers. Finding the right one for your facility will help ensure you always have the ability to create custom GHS labels when you need them.
When looking at creating labels for your facility it is important to note that you don't always need to print a full label. Thanks to the GHS standards, facilities can know some of the specific points that will need to be on every label they require. For example, the red diamonds or black outlines.
This makes it possible to purchase blank GHS label supplies that come pre-printed with these types of things. This can provide your facility with a variety of cost savings. First, you'll be using less ink so that alone will save you a significant amount. Next, you can create color labels even if you have a black and white label printer. This is possible since the label stock you use will have the color outlines that are often needed.
If you're looking for a simple way to add pictograms to almost any container, you may want to consider having GHS pictogram stickers on hand in your facility. These stickers are an extremely easy way to make sure you always have the proper pictogram in place when you need it.
You can get pictogram stickers for all nine of the different hazards. Depending on the type of facility you run and what chemicals you use, it can be smart to just have a roll of each of these stickers to be used as needed.
In addition to labeling, GHS has standards regarding safety data sheets. Safety data sheets, which used to be called Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are used to communicate specific hazards that are related to chemical products. Like the labeling requirements, GHS has a variety of specific requirements for all safety data sheets.
There are multiple sections that should be used when creating a safety data sheet. Here is a brief introduction to the 16 sections:
One of the best things you can do to make sure you are creating SDS's properly is to have an approved GHS safety data sheet example on hand that you can use as a guide. Keep in mind that most standard chemicals will already have GHS safety data sheets made for them, which can be used. You'll just need to update the pre-made sheet with any specific information regarding your company and how the chemical is to be used.
You can also find many templates for GHS safety data sheets. These make it much faster and easier to create an accurate data sheet on almost any chemical you can think of. Templates can also help ensure you don't make any errors on your SDS so that there is little risk of accidently being in violation of OSHA requirements.
The last, but maybe most important, topic that we will go over is the GHS training that you will need in your facility. Just like any other strategy in your facility, if the employees don't understand it or don't follow it, then it will be virtually useless. With this in mind, you need to have a good training program created to help ensure everyone is on the same page.
You will have a lot of options when it comes to providing your employees with GHS training. In most cases a company is going to want to use multiple different approaches to ensure their teams know everything they need to know to stay in compliance with the GHS requirements.
Most new employees, for example, will need to go through an initial training session to get them up to speed regarding what GHS is and how it will impact their day to day activities. Some companies will provide this type of training on site as part of a new employee orientation program. Others send them to third party training seminars.
If offering the training onsite, you want to make sure you are working from a good manual or GHS guide to ensure all the most important topics are covered. Once the main training is completed, you will want to take steps to ensure GHS is always on the minds of those working in the facility. Here are some ideas on how you can do this:
Coming up with the right long term strategy for your facility is very important. When done properly you will be able to ensure everyone understands GHS and follows the standards today and long into the future.
When you understand the GHS system and how it works you will have no trouble seeing the benefits it can bring your facility. Even if you don't factor in the OHSA regulations and only look at the direct advantages to your facility, you can certainly see how great a system this can be.
Whether you are operating a small local facility or an international company, you want to make sure you run everything as safely as possible. Implementing and keeping up on the GHS standards will help ensure your facility can be safe for your employees and the surrounding community.
With that in mind, take some time to make sure you really understand how you should be using the globally harmonized system so you can move forward with implementing or improving it in your facility. You'll certainly be glad that you did today and long into the future.