Gage R&R stands for gage Repeatability and Reproducibility. Whenever using any type of instrument, machine, or another tool it is important to ensure that the way that they will function is going to be consistent and predictable. By analyzing a system for variance due to random effects, it is possible to determine how often there will be issues accurately.
It is important to understand that in some cases, a tool or machine does not need to be perfectly accurate, but knowing how often a failure or inaccuracy can be expected will be necessary. For example, some companies will find that having one part out of every million produced experience a problem is not a big deal. This is especially the case when the company has a way to detect the issues and pull any impacted parts so that they do not continue through a manufacturing process.
Of course, there are also some situations where having as close to 100% accuracy as possible is going to be important. Regardless of how accurate a tool or instrument may be, Gage R&R is a great way to determine exactly what the expected results will be.
Having a tool or machine that operates predictably will make it possible for companies to know what types of results they can expect to form over time. It will also make it easier for a company to make informed decisions on things like when a particular machine should be replaced or upgraded, what types of variance detection are required, and much more.
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