How does agriculture lead to a surplus of food?

Agricultural farming methods date back centuries, being an essential source of food for communities across the world. In today’s day and age, the rise of advanced machinery and technology means agriculture has evolved to create a massive industry that doesn’t just provide us with the basics, but creates a surplus of food.

Over time, people have found new ways to utilize land that was previously unused, expanding the amount of area which can be used to produce food. Agricultural land has been gained through deforestation, converting hilly or uneven terrain, and expansion to isolated areas, allowing what was once seen as unusable land to become usable. Although additional maintenance may be required, such as cover cropping or rotation, expanding to new land is maximizing the opportunities for food production on a significant scale.

As well as the extra land, new agricultural techniques have enhanced practices through the implementation of machinery, irrigation and improved crop yields. By incorporating technologies such as drones and sensors, farmers are able to improve their use of fertilizers and water consumption to maximize efficiency and see better results, producing more healthy crops. On top of this, genetic modifications are possible which enhance the growth of crop varieties through resistance to pests, disease and harsh weather conditions.

The industry is starting to see a big push towards sustainable agriculture, with more environmentally friendly practices playing a crucial role in the carbon footprint of farming. As well as minimizing damage, it is necessary in order to stay on top of the changing environmental conditions to avoid disruption and financial losses. Through organic farming which cuts out chemical usage and preserves soil as well as water conservation through irrigation methods,  these agricultural practices are contributing towards the increased food supply.

As well as the growing of crops, there have been advancements in the way goods are stored for longevity. Whether it’s refrigeration, drying, or preserving, controlling how harvested goods are stored will elongate the lifespan of a product to avoid waste and prepare for down periods. This is also great for trade, supporting the need to transport goods to other communities in order to improve food availability and create a global network.


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